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Knowledge is Power

This website provides information and resources on FPIC as a tool of self-determination to assist communities in decision making. We have selected articles, tool kits, videos, voice messages, and community stories about FPIC and consultation.

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Total Resources: 180

This report describes the current attitudes towards FPIC among extractive industries, assesses challenges business encounter in implementing FPIC, and outlines the key tools and practices that companies can use to develop relationships with Indigenous peoples and implement FPIC. Consent is framed as an iterative, multi-layered, ongoing process of consultation, rather than a one-time seal of approval.

Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of Land Use and Resource Management Policies in Ontario, Canada and their Intersection with First Nations
Scientific Paper

2015 - English - Technical

Finding Common Ground: A Critical Review of ...

Carolyn King, Fraser McLeod, Graham Whitelaw et al.


This article analyses selective land use and resource management policies in their ability to recognize the rights of First Nations and Aboriginal peoples and past Crown-First Nations relationships. This study completed a document analysis of provincial legal documents on how they address First Nation issues and areas for improvement. Findings show an urgent need for guidance on how provincial authorities improve policy on relations between First Nations and other jurisdictions.

Out of the Conflict Zone: The Case for Community Consent Processes in the Extractive Sector
Scientific Paper

This article argues that FPIC processes must remain enduring, enforceable, and meaningful to be effective in resolving disputes between companies and communities. FPIC should benefit both the companies that have the consent of communities and benefit communities with control over resource-based development. The author argues that companies should undergo FPIC processes to tackle growing opposition to their projects in developing countries.

Mission Impossible?: Adopting a CSR-Based Business Model for Extractice Industries in Developing Countries
Scientific Paper

2012 - English - Advanced

Mission Impossible?: Adopting a CSR-Based Bu...

Keith Slack


This article critiques the rhetoric of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) that is used by extractive industries in order to build a public image, that is not reflective of their true mining practices. They argue that because definitions of CSR are not universal and are based on voluntary requirements only, corporations can communicate public images that are potentially misleading. The necessity of developing a CSR-model of business practices is put forth as necessary for responsible development.

The Community Referendum: Participatory Democracy and the Right to Free, Prior and Informed Consent to Development
Scientific Paper

2009 - English - Advanced

The Community Referendum: Participatory Demo...

Brant McGee


This article discusses the Community Referenda as a consultation strategy to achieve FPIC, in which each community member votes on a potential development project. The development and purpose of FPIC in International law is discussed in the context of mining projects in Latin America that have resulted in conflict. Community Referenda are seen as a democratic form of consultation in which the perspectives of stakeholders can be taken into account.

The Right to Free, Prior, and Informed Consent: Indigenous People's Participation Rigths within International Law
Scientific Paper

2011 - English - Advanced

The Right to Free, Prior, and Informed Conse...

Tara Ward


This article looks at how FPIC was developed in international law by examining Indigenous peoples’ participation internationally. Two case studies – Lubicon Cree in Northern Alberta, Canada and Mayan communities in Guatemala – are examined to show unique contextual factors related to FPIC and Indigenous peoples’ rights.

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